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HISTORY OF GM PORT INJECTION


The first production TUNED PORT INJECTION (TPI) appeared on General Motors vehicles in 1985. The GM vehicles built with these systems were Corvette, Pontiac Firebird & Trans AM, and the Chevrolet Camaro. These systems according to the manufacturer rendered up to 30 % improvement in Horsepower, torque and economy over carbureted systems, Independent labratories conducted numerous test on the TPI systems and indicated these claims were conservative and that increases of up to 35% in these three areas are attainable.


The 350/5.7L engines from the factory went from 205 HP (1984 Corvette/ crossfire injection) to 245 HP with the addition of TPI. The only differences were the addition of the TPI (1985) and improvements in the valve train (1987). Note that this is a 20% improvement over another proven form of fuel injection.

Several modifications have been made to the TPI system introduced in 1985. The 1985 system used a GM Part #1226870 ECM and had a Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor and a MAFS module to control the power and burnoff functions for the MAFS. In 1986 two relays replaced the MAFS module and the Electronic Control Module (ECM) was changed to a GM part #1227165. In 1989 the cold start injector was deleted from the system. The primary injectors were used for cold starts via a fuel enrichment program in the newer EPROM calibrators. In 1990 GM introduced the speed density system. In essence the MAFS was replaced with a Manifold Air Pressure(MAP) Sensor. This system uses a ECM GM Part #1227727 for the Corvette.

Another fuel system was introduced in 1992 called Central Port Injection (CPI) and appeared first on the 4.3L (W) L35 Engine. This system is the equivalent of TPI for the V6 and will increase horsepower and torque by a factor of 20% over TBI. A 30 % increase in horsepower, torque and fuel economy is seen over carburetion.

The LT1 was also introduced in 92, as the basic engine in the Corvette. It appeared in the Firebird, Z28 (F Body Cars), Caprice, Buick and Cadillac in 93. 1993 was the last year for EPROM's in these cars. Opti-Spark also made its entry on the LT1 engine in 92.

In 94, OBDII or EEPROM, computers were first used in the Corvette and F Body Cars. This was the 1st year for Sequential port Injection in these cars.

In 96 the LT4 appeared in the manual trans Corvette, it is rated at 330 HP and 340 lb ft torque. It looks the same as the LT1, however the heads and valve train have been modified. The valves are larger 2.00 Int / 1.55 Exh from 1.94/1.50. Air passages are larger to enhance volumetric efficiency, hollow valve stems, aluminum roller rocker arms and stronger valve springs have also been added. The camshaft has more lift and a slight overlap at the end of the combustion cycle eliminating the need for EGR. The compression ratio is (Premium Gas Only) 10.8:1 compared to the 10.4:1 LT1. This engine makes 330HPat 5800 RPM and 330 lb ft Torque at 4500 RPM.

LT1's flowed 195 CFM compared to 240 CFM for the LT4